When making the decision about how you want to organize your business, it is advisable to consult a professional, but you can and should do a reasonable amount of research yourself. The establishment of a company is subject to the law of the state in which you are organizing. Incorporation: To form an LLC, you must pay a deposit fee ($100 to $800) and have an organizational charter at the time of incorporation of the company. Company agreements are highly recommended, but not required by all states. Similar to a partnership agreement or corporate charter, the LLC operating agreement establishes rules for the ownership and operation of businesses. A standard corporate agreement includes: In the absence of explicit legal guidelines, most U.S. courts have ruled that LLC members are subject to the same common law alter-ego piercing theories as corporate shareholders.  However, it is more difficult to penetrate the veil of the LLC because LLCs do not have to comply with many formalities. As long as the LLC and its members do not mix the funds, it is difficult to penetrate the veil of the LLC.
  Members` interests in CLLs and partnership interests also enjoy a significant level of protection through the fee order mechanism. The encumbering order limits the creditor of a debtor partner or debtor member to the debtor`s share in the distributions without transferring the voting or administrative rights to the creditor.  In June 2013, Shoppers Drug Mart, Canada`s largest pharmacy chain, merged with Loblaw, Canada`s largest food retailer, in a $12.4 billion transaction. Instead of reducing each other`s market share, the deal allows both companies to leverage each other`s strengths. Buyers have annual food sales of about $1 billion, compared to $30 billion for Loblaw. But Loblaw`s share of the pharmacy market is only five percent, so adding health products and services for shoppers to loblaw grocery stores allows the grocery retailer to expand its services in what it sees as a growing sector: health, wellness and nutrition. (www.cbc.ca). Compare this merger to an acquisition in the same year. Sobey`s has acquired 200 Safeway stores in Western Canada in a $5.8 billion transaction.
According to media reports, in addition to the 213 Safeway grocery stores – more than 60% of which are located in Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton and Winnipeg – Sobeys will also acquire the following: A major problem with partnerships, such as sole proprietorships, is unlimited liability: in this case, each partner is personally liable not only for his own actions, but also the shares of all the partners. If your partner in an architectural firm makes a mistake that causes a structure to collapse, the loss suffered by your business will affect you as much as he does. And here`s the very bad news: if the company doesn`t have cash or other assets to cover the losses, you can be sued in person for the amount due. In other words, the party who suffered a loss as a result of the error can sue you for your personal property. Many people are naturally reluctant to enter into partnerships because they have unlimited liability. Some forms of business allow owners to limit their liability. These include limited partnerships and partnerships. However, non-profit organizations may be established only for the tax-exempt purposes set out in Section 501(c) and are subject to specific regulatory requirements in each state. A company is formed by submitting a statute to the State. The incorporation process includes the appointment of a board of directors to oversee the company and the establishment of articles of association for its governance. A partnership (or partnership) is a partnership jointly owned by two or more persons.
About 10% of U.S. companies are partnerships, and while the vast majority are small, some are quite large. For example, the four major accounting firms, Deloitte, PwC, Ernst & Young and KPMG, are partnerships. Starting a partnership is more complex than starting a sole proprietorship, but it`s still relatively simple and inexpensive. Costs vary depending on size and complexity. It is possible to form a simple partnership without the help of a lawyer or accountant, although it is usually a good idea to seek professional advice. For U.S. federal income tax purposes, an LLC is treated as a default transmission entity.  If there is only one member in the corporation, the LLC will be treated as an “unaccounted entity” for tax purposes (unless a different tax status is chosen), and an individual owner will report the LLC`s income or loss on Schedule C of their individual tax return. Thus, the LLC`s income is taxed at individual tax rates. The default tax status for multi-member LLCs is that of a partnership that must report income and losses on IRS Form 1065.
As part of the partnership`s tax treatment, as is the case for all partners in a partnership, each member of the LLC receives an annual Form K-1, which specifies the member`s distribution share of the CLL`s income or loss, which is then reported on the member`s individual`s tax return.  On the other hand, corporate income is taxed twice: once at the company level and once at distribution to shareholders. Thus, there are often more tax savings when a corporation is founded as an LLC and not as a corporation.  Most not-for-profit organizations are incorporated as corporations claiming tax-exempt status under Section 501(c) of the IRC. Their incorporation process is the same as for other companies, with articles of association submitted to the Secretary of State, a board of directors and articles of corporate governance. For several years, other states were slow to adopt the LLC form because it was unclear whether a Wyoming LLC could be taxed as a partnership under Kintner regulations. After the IRS finally ruled in Tax Decision 88-76 in 1988 that Wyoming LLCs were taxable as partnerships, other states began to take the LLC seriously and enact their own LLC laws.  In 1996, all 50 states had LLC laws.  In 1995, the IRS concluded that the widespread adoption of LLC laws had undermined the Kintner regulations, and in 1996 it passed new regulations that introduced a “Check the Box” (CTB) voting system for classifying entities, which came into effect in the United States on January 1, 1997.  The most common forms of business ownership are: Sole proprietorships are the standard structure of a company that has not submitted documents to form a legal entity. It is the simplest form of business ownership and the structure of choice for four out of five small business owners without employees. Another disadvantage of starting a business – which often discourages small businesses from starting – is the fact that starting a business is more expensive.
If you combine filing and licensing fees with accounting and legal fees, starting a business can cost you $1,000 to $6,000 or more, depending on the size and scope of your business.  In addition, businesses are subject to a level of government regulation and oversight that can increase the burden on small businesses. Finally, companies are subject to what is commonly known as “double taxation”. Corporations are taxed by the federal and provincial governments on their profits. When these profits are distributed in the form of dividends, shareholders pay taxes on these dividends. Corporate profits are therefore taxed twice – the company pays taxes the first time and the shareholders the second time. Five years after starting their ice cream business, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield evaluated the pros and cons of the company`s ownership form, and the “professionals” won. The main motivation was the need to raise funds for the construction of a $2 million production facility. Not only did Ben and Jerry decide to move from a partnership to a corporation, but they also decided to sell shares to the public (and thus become a public company). Their sale of shares to the public was a bit unusual: Ben and Jerry wanted the community to own the company, so instead of offering the shares to anyone interested in buying a stock, they only offered shares to Vermont residents. Ben believed that “companies have a responsibility to the community from which they derive their support, to give something in return.”  He wanted the company to be owned by those who lined up at the gas station to buy cones. The stock was so popular that one in a hundred Vermont families bought shares in the company.
 Eventually, as the company continued to grow, the shares were sold domestically […].