As host and president of COP21, the France is committed to supporting a multilateral negotiation process and listening to all stakeholders to reach an agreement: according to the Paris Summit Organising Committee, the goal of the 2015 conference was to reach a binding and universal climate agreement for the first time in more than 20 years of UN negotiations.  Pope Francis issued an encyclical entitled Laudato si`, which was intended to partially influence the conference. The encyclical calls for action against climate change: “Humanity is called to recognize the need for changes in lifestyle, production and consumption to combat this warming, or at least the human causes that create or exacerbate it.  The International Trade Union Confederation has called for the goal of “zero carbon, zero poverty,” and its general secretary, Sharan Burrow, has reiterated that there are “no jobs on a dead planet.” A preliminary study with inventory implications was published in April 2020 in Nature Communications. Based on a public policy database and multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current policies leaves a median emissions gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with optimal trajectories to achieve the Paris targets well below 2°C and 1.5°C. If nationally determined contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one third. It was found that the countries assessed had not achieved the promised contributions with the implemented policy (implementation gap) or that they had an ambition deficit with optimal trajectories well below 2°C. The study showed that all countries need to accelerate the implementation of renewable technology policies, while efficiency gains are particularly important in emerging economies and fossil fuel-dependent countries.  At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was created with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Protesters gather near the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, during the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. In previous climate negotiations, countries agreed to define by 1 October 2015 the measures they wanted to take under a global agreement. These obligations are referred to as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDCs.  Together, inDCs would reduce global warming from about 4 to 5°C (by 2100) to 2.7°C and per capita emissions by 9% by 2030, while in the eyes of conference organizers, they give hope for further reductions in the future that would achieve a 2°C target.  Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, legal instruments may be adopted to achieve the objectives of the Convention. For the period 2008 to 2012, measures to reduce greenhouse gases were agreed in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The scope of the Protocol was extended until 2020 with the Doha amendment of the Protocol in 2012.
 The level of NDCs set by each country will set that country`s objectives. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character [clarification required] or mandatory language required to create binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism that requires a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date, and no application if a set target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will only be a “Name and Shame” system, or as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, told CBS News (USA), a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement does not foresee any consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.  The assessment is part of the Paris Agreement`s efforts to “amplify” emissions reduction ambitions. While analysts agreed in 2014 that NDCs would not limit temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius, the global inventory brings parties together to assess how their new NDCs need to evolve so that they permanently reflect a country`s “highest possible ambition.”  The Paris Agreement marks the beginning of a transition to a low-carbon world – much more needs to be done. The implementation of the agreement is crucial to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, as it includes a roadmap for climate action that will reduce emissions and build climate resilience. Financing is essential to support emerging economies and support the transition to carbon-free economies. The agreement stipulates that from 2020, $100 billion in public and private resources will have to be raised each year to finance projects that will allow countries to adapt to the effects of climate change (sea level rise, droughts, etc.) or reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
These funds should be gradually increased and some developing countries will also be able to become donors on a voluntary basis to help the poorest countries. At the same time, another study published in 2018 notes that even with a warming of 1.5°C in India, South and Southeast Asia, a significant increase in the occurrence of high river flows would be expected.  However, the same study indicates that with a warming of 2°C, various regions of South America, Central Africa, Western Europe and the Mississippi region in the United States would see higher currents; This increases the risk of flooding. While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, numerous studies evaluating each country`s voluntary commitments in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be large enough to keep temperatures below this ceiling. In fact, the targets set by countries are expected to limit the future temperature increase to 2.7 to 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of countries` performance in the context of their Paris climate goals suggest that some countries are already failing to meet their commitments. The countries that will be most affected by the effects of climate change are low-lying countries that are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise and developing countries that do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature and precipitation. But rich countries like the United States are also increasingly vulnerable. In fact, several million Americans — especially children, the elderly, and the poor — are already suffering from the wrath of climate change.
The world is already almost halfway to nearly 1°C, and many countries have advocated for a stricter target of 1.5°C – including leaders of low-lying countries facing unsustainable sea-level rise in a warming world. President Obama was able to formally include the United States in the international agreement through executive action, as he did not impose any new legal obligations on the country. The U.S. already has a number of tools on its books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution. The country formally acceded to the agreement in September 2016 after submitting its proposal for participation. The Paris Agreement could not enter into force until at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had officially acceded to it. This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement entered into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. Negotiators of the agreement said the INDCs presented at the Paris conference were inadequate and noted “with concern that the estimated overall greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions do not fall under the most cost-effective 2°C scenarios, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and recognizing “that much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the increase in global average temperature below 2°C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatons or 1.5°C”.
 [Clarification needed] In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognises that states have common but different responsibilities, i.e. . . .